The Deliberative Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat defines skyscrapers as those buildings which reach or exceed 150 m (490 ft) in height. Others in the United States and Europe also draw the lower limit of a skyscraper at 150 m (490 ft).
The word skyscraper often carries a connotation of pride and achievement. The skyscraper, in name and social function, is a modern expression of the age-old symbol of the world center or axis mundi: a pillar that connects earth to heaven and the four compass directions to one another.
Sub article: Early skyscrapers
In 1857, Elisha Otis introduced the safety elevator, allowing convenient and safe passenger movement to upper floors. Another crucial development was the use of a steel frame instead of stone or brick, otherwise the walls on the lower floors on a tall building would be too thick to be practical. An early development in this area was Oriel Chambers in Liverpool, England. It was only five floors high. Further developments led to the world's first skyscraper, the ten-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago, built in 1884–1885. Though its height is not considered very impressive today, it was at that time. The building of tall buildings in the 1880s gave the skyscraper its first architectural movement the Chicago School, which developed the Commercial Style.
Sub article: Modern skyscrapers
Since the 1960s, according to the CTHUB, the skyscraper has been reoriented away from a symbol for North American corporate power to instead communicate a city or nation's place in the world. Modern skyscrapers are built with steel or reinforced concrete frameworks and curtain walls of glass or polished stone. They use mechanical equipment such as water pumps and elevators.
Other contemporary styles and movements in skyscraper design include organic, sustainable, neo-futurist, structuralist, high-tech, deconstructivist, blob, digital, streamline, novelty, critical regionalist, vernacular, Neo Art Deco and neo-historian, also known as revivalist
The design and construction of skyscrapers involves creating safe, habitable spaces in very tall buildings. The buildings must support their weight, resist wind and earthquakes, and protect occupants from fire. Yet they must also be conveniently accessible, even on the upper floors, and provide utilities and a comfortable climate for the occupants. The problems posed in skyscraper design are considered among the most complex encountered given the balances required between economics, engineering, and construction management.
⦁ Basic design considerations
⦁ Loading and vibration
⦁ Steel frame
⦁ Tube structural systems
⦁ The elevator conundrum
Ancient Times -tallest skyscrapers
History of the tallest buildings in the world, record of tallest buildings and structures
Here the journey begins, of the 20th century, New York City was a center for the Beaux-Arts architectural movement, attracting the talents of such great architects as Stanford White and Carrere and Hastings. As better construction and engineering technology became available as the century progressed, New York City and Chicago became the focal point of the competition for the tallest building in the world. Each city's striking skyline has been composed of numerous and varied skyscrapers, many of which are icons of 20th-century architecture:
⦁ The iconic ⦁ World Trade Center twin towers were ⦁ destroyed in 2001.
⦁ The ⦁ Willis Tower in Chicago was the world's tallest building from 1974 to 1998; many still refer to it as the "Sears Tower," its name from inception to 2009.
⦁ The Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur were the tallest from 1998 to 2004.
Taipei 101, the world's tallest skyscraper from 2004 to 2010, was the first to exceed the 500-metre mark.